Sparta & Pergamon Preview

 Greetings everyone! Below you will find a preview from KAM and Agrez featuring the upcoming visual updates for Sparta and Pergamon. This will be included in 1.2.5 to be released soon!


Melee Infantry:

Royal Thorakitai:

Pergamese Thureos Swords:

Pergamese Thorakitai:

Spear Infantry:

Royal Companions:

Picked Thorax Spears (Replacing Thorax Hoplites):

Pergamese Pikemen:

Picked Thureophoroi:

Pergamese Hoplites:


Ranged Infantry:

Picked Peltats:

Phrygian Peltasts:

Pergamese Peltasts:


Royal Cavalry:

Pergamese Cavalry:

Pergamese Thorax Cavalry:



Spear Infantry:


Spartan Youths:

Spartan Hoplites:

Late Spartan Hoplites:

Spartan Pikemen:

Melee Infantry:

Spartan Thorax Swords:



Spartan Cavalry:


Seleucid Silver Shield Thorakitai:

1.2.5 Preview Video

Hello everyone! As we near release of our next major update for the mod, Lysander has made a wonderful preview video to highlight some of the upcoming changes. I hope you enjoy! We hope to have the update out in the next couple of weeks.

Huge thanks to him for putting in all the work for the video!

Sneak Preview: New Shields!

Here is a little teaser preview that will be featured in a much larger preview coming soon! Some new shield patterns for Pergamon and an entirely new shield model for the Seleucids that has a 3D boss on the front. These are part of our upcoming 1.2.5 release.

Teaser Preview: Alexander

Scenario Submod Campaign

For the past 4 months I have been working on a project and today I am happy to announce that project with a few teaser images. With the next major mod update coming in a couple months, a new type of Submod will be making a debut. I am tentatively calling these Scenario Submod Campaigns and we hope to have many more in the future. The general premise of these campaigns will be that they are optional submods which replace the Augustus campaign and will allow for new scenarios to be enjoyed from different parts of history all using DeI’s systems. These will also allow for a more customizable, RPG experience as we further develop these concepts going forward. It will also allow us to independently develop these submods after release.

The first of these will be an Alexander Campaign that starts in 335 BC and follows the legendary leader from just after his father’s death through his many wars and conquests. While it is still currently in an alpha-ish state, I wanted to post some screenshots and let everyone know what we are working on. Things here may not be final but at least its a teaser of what is to come. Another exciting note is that Benjin from the wonderful AAA generals mod will hopefully be joining the project to help create custom models for Alexander and perhaps Darius, as well as help in other areas as well!

Stay tuned for a lot more information about this as we get closer to our next mod release!

Teaser Images


Preview: Kimbroz

For a third of a century after Rome destroyed Carthage in 146 B.C., it faced no seriously threatening enemies in the Mediterranean region. Yet a major challenge was stirring in far-off Jutland. The Germanic Cimbri and Teutoni tribes abandoned their homes in Jutland and began a southward migration in 120-115 B.C. In 113 B.C., they arrived in Noricum, in present-day Austria.

The local tribe in Noricum, an ally of Rome, begged for help against the incursion. The next year, the consul Gnaeus Papirius Carbo marched a Roman army to drive away the intruders. Yet Carbo barely escaped with his life, and his legions were destroyed.

Declining to invade Italy, the Germans then turned west into Gaul, gathering allies such as the Celtic Ambrones. When the interlopers encroached on Rome’s allies in southern Gaul, the Romans in 105 B.C. decided to end the matter and dispatched two consuls, each leading an army.

Totaling 80,000 men and half again as many camp followers, the two armies comprised the largest Roman force assembled since the one Hannibal had annihilated at the Battle of Cannae in 216 B.C. – and this latter Roman force met an equally disastrous end. When the two consuls refused to combine their armies, the Romans were slaughtered at the Battle of Arausio on the Rhone River.

Rome panicked at the terror cimbricus. But inexplicably, the Cimbri marched into Spain on a great plunder raid while the Teutones remained in Gaul. Yet such was the emergency that the Romans overrode their constitution and elected General Gaius Marius, famed for conquering Numidia, to an unprecedented five continuous years as consul beginning in 104 B.C., with the mandate to create a new army.

Heretofore, the right to serve in the Roman army had been based on land ownership. However, the continuous wars against Carthage and Macedonia had kept Rome’s peasant soldiers in the field so long that an increasing number of them had to sell their farms to pay their debts. The slaughter at Arausio further decimated the shrunken manpower pool.

Marius, therefore, completely disregarded the property qualification and instead recruited poor and landless Romans to serve in his army. Fortunately, the Germans’ failure to march immediately on Rome gave him the precious time he needed to train this new force.

In 102 B.C., Marius marched his army of six legions (40,000 men) into southern Gaul to confront the Teutones. By then, the Cimbri had returned to Gaul and the two tribes decided to invade Italy from separate directions – the Teutones along the Mediterranean coast, and the Cimbri through the Alps’ Brenner Pass.

Marius was fortunate to catch the Teutones and the Ambrones after the Cimbri had departed, yet his army still faced great odds since the enemy force numbered 120,000 warriors. He kept his men in their fortified camp, where they repulsed a German attack. The enemy then decided to bypass the camp and march into Italy.

The Germanic horde took six days to march by, and its troops taunted the Romans, shouting, “Do you have any messages for your wives? After all, we’ll soon be with them!” Marius broke camp and followed the enemy to Aquae Sextiae, where he built another fortified camp. Roman slaves drawing water from the river provoked the Ambrones to attack. Marius then launched his soldiers downhill at the Ambrones and crushed them at the river.

Two days later, Marius led his army to confront the Teutones while secretly placing 3,000 Romans in a nearby woods. The Germans filled the plain and charged up the hill at the Romans, who met them with a javelin storm and then drew their swords. As Marius’ men forced back the Teutones, his hidden troops attacked at the enemy’s rear.

The Teutones panicked and retreated to their camp, with the pursuing Romans inflicting great slaughter. The Teutones’ king, Teutobod, and many of the survivors surrendered. The Greek biographer Plutarch reported that over 100,000 were killed or captured, and that in subsequent years the soil, enriched with the rotted flesh of so many, yielded unprecedented bounty.

As the Teutones met their destruction, the Cimbri crossed the Alps. Since Roman consul Quintus Lutatius Catalus had withdrawn his garrisons from the passes, the Cimbri marched through an undefended northern Italy. When they finally confronted Catalus’ men, the Roman troops fled. Meanwhile, Marius returned to Rome and then marched his army to join Catalus’ soldiers. Together, the two armies numbered over 50,000 men in eight legions.

The Cimbri had delayed their offensive believing the Teutones would soon join them. However, Marius told them that they need not worry about their Teutone brothers, saying, “They already have land, and they’ll keep it forever; it was a gift from us.” He then brought out Teutobod in chains. The Cimbri thereupon demanded that Marius set a time and place for battle, and he designated the Raudine Plain at Vercellae near the confluence of the Po and Sesia rivers.

As the Cimbri emerged from their camp, they generated a huge dust cloud that obscured the size of their force – thereby preserving the Romans’ morale, since Marius’ soldiers could not see how greatly they were outnumbered. The Cimbri sent a cavalry force to trap the Romans, but it was defeated by the Roman cavalry under Catulus’ legate, Lucius Cornelius Sulla. Indeed, thanks to Sulla, it was the Cimbri who were eventually trapped and crushed by Roman cavalry.

Marius then ordered that for each Roman javelin, one of the two iron pins affixing the point to the shaft be replaced with a wooden dowel that would break upon impact. When the javelins connected with the opponents’ shields during battle, the weight of the shafts bent the javelins, which then could not be withdrawn and thrown back at the Romans. The heaviness of the embedded javelins eventually forced the Cimbri to throw away their shields.

The best of the Cimbri warriors in the front rank chained themselves together in resolve to conquer or die; the Romans assisted them in the latter. Sulla’s cavalry attack sowed panic, and the enemy survivors fled to their camp with the Romans in pursuit. Enough of the Cimbri survived to yield 60,000 prisoners, but twice as many of their dead littered the field.

Marius returned to Rome for his well-deserved triumph. However, at the time, no one realized that his victory would lead to the destruction of the Roman republic. By recruiting landless men, Marius, and later Sulla and then Julius Caesar, created armies beholden only to them and not to the Roman state. The institutions of the republic could not withstand this irresistible force unleashed upon them. Strong and violent men fought over the body of Rome for the next 60 years, and out of the ashes of the republic emerged the Roman Empire.

This faction rework will be released in winter 2666 by our great-great-great-grandchilds (Kamil2650, Newdresden III and Marsian-Greek Strategos II)

This faction rework adds 20 new units to the Cimbri. Here are some pictures of the new units:

Melee Infantry

Loyal to their local chief, these unarmoured warriors rely on speed and cunning. They are adept with spear, axe or sword. They are not highly trained or disciplined but will eagerly smash into enemy lines for glory and loot. If in servitude, they hope that the valour shown may buy them freedman status. They can be excellent ambushers, but are not expected to hold off heavier units.

Extremely deadly, very hardy, and capable of launching a powerful charge, these warriors frighten nearby infantry. Axemen like these use a strong shield for defense and a hefty axe for splitting skulls and severing limbs. Howling like banshees, they sprint into battle to butcher any enemy that stands in their way. These warriors are armed in the Celtic manner, and indeed the throwing-axe of the Celts, the cateia, is also called the teutonus.

These chosen men are relatively poor, but equipped with heavy axes and used to break enemy formations. They are exceptionally tall, strong, and battle-hardened, so are very effective against any unit, even an armoured one. They are also fast and agile, and perfect for flanking manoeuvers, used as the main shock infantry to be followed by other warriors. The literal meaning of their name is “battle boar,” as they are a metaphoric equivalent of the wild boar.

Finesse is not in the vocabulary of these ‘animals.’ Brute force and viciousness, however, are the norm. All the enemy can see peering out from the tree line is the gigantic shape of a man-bear, with fierce blue eyes burning with a desire to pound them to a pulp. When loosed upon them, this human avalanche of screaming muscle would often break through the enemy line, clawing and battering terror-stricken opponents.

Xerunautoz Xasþaþai
These warriors are some of the more experienced men a Cimbrian leader has to lean on. They launch javelins before engaging hand to hand, but their joy is hacking and chopping with the sword, which can shatter shields, separate limbs and split helmets.

These well-trained but impetuous warriors terrify nearby infantry with their war cry. Experts at hiding in long grass and darkened forests, they are very hardy and use their single-edged blade with deadly efficiency.

Waiþiz Woþo
Animals, especially wolves, offer much to the warrior bent on going beyond the bounds of his own humanity. He can walk, jump, or run, but also hide, creep, lurk, scream, and howl – wolves often howl in triumph at a kill – and he does all he can to frighten the enemy. The Cimbri have a deep respect for wolves, observing them, copying them, and trying to imitate them. These warriors are stealth fighters, relying on camouflage and trickery to surprise an opponent. Fitted for speed and surprise, attacking and disappearing in hit-and-run raids, the wolf warriors are armed with spear, sword, and shield, and each wears the gaping maw of a wolf atop his head.

Kuningaz Beryanoz
The equipment of these nobles is the finest available; the sword they carry is an extension of their body. They are incredibly ferocious and deadly accurate. They are the leaders of their cantons, and their cantons fight to protect them and earn their favour.

Spear Infantry

The romans call them “framearii” because they are equipped with a framea spear as their main weapon and nothing else. Every man in a village is virtually a warrior, ready to defend his tribe until his last breath.

These warriors are the Cimbrian answer to Triarii. They also pose the greatest threat and defense against enemy cavalry. The framea spear they carry is of the strongest material available, and they are also armed with swords as secondary weapons when bloodlust requires a more personal form of combat. They have more protection in the form of helmets and leather or perhaps bronze breastplates, but fear of death is unknown to these men.

Naked warriors stun and awe enemies not used to their appearance on the battlefield, much like the Suebi Harii who paint themselves and their shields all black to terrorise enemies during attacks at night. These well-trained but impetuous spearmen have no fear of injury or death. Like most Germanic warriors, these hardy troops are experts at hiding in forests and their war cry can cause even veteran warriors to waver.

These heavy infantrymen carry a stout framea spear, a brightly coloured shield, and a fine sword. The Cimbri are traders of amber, a commodity much sought-after by eastern and Hellenic peoples. The Cimbri obatin quality swords from Dacian or Scythian traders, and these warriors also wear helmets and breastplates made of either bronze or iron. These worthy warriors are capable of holding the line and are also useful as shock troops.

Missile Infantry

These skirmishers are primarily younger warriors and hunters. They carry perhaps two or three short-bladed missiles to hurl at the enemy, as well as a combat spear with a longer point to engage in close quarter fighting if needed. Not expected to engage their foes for long like the older warriors, they use their speed and cunning to strike and disappear. Often they are trained by family members and serve their local chief.

This “warband” (Druthi-) is made up of younger warriors, javelinmen for the most part. They learn how to fight with a bunch of light javelins, and carry an affordable wicker shield, as well as a light axe or a dagger like the seaxe as a secondary weapon. Their equipment is cheap, light, and practical, and these warriors are not encumbered by a long spear, so they are agile and useful for quick raids and ambushes.

Stranjaz Druthiz
The toughest and most hardened of the skirmisher, these men comprise a canton(100 per unit) from their local tribe, and are better equipped than other skirmishers, most certainly a deadly force on the field. They usually draw first blood in battle after the long and terrifying roar that precedes a furious assault by their brethren. They have stout shields and iron spears, and a few have helmets, most likely a covering made from animal furs to look even more frightening.

Due to the extensive wandering of this tribe, its slingers have had the advantage of perfecting their art through centuries of contact and alliances with foreign powers. Some slingstones they use have holes through the middle to accommodate the hide sling, so that there is no chance of accidentally dislodging the stone, but the slinger can throw at a velocity that can stun, break bones, or kill.

Because of their expertise hiding in the forests and fields, or for that matter anywhere, these archers are a deadly threat to enemies. They are used to annoy enemy forces from a distance, or perhaps make cavalry hesitate. They do also carry a spear with them in the event of close encounters, or to support fellow warriors.


Gaisoz Ridanz
Cimbri horsemen are described as not having impressive mounts, but are very well-trained. Often the Cimbri race the tides in their native Jutland, merely for fun and daring. These very hardy horsemen are well-trained at hiding in forests and smart enough to wait for the right moment to strike.

Cimbri horsemen are well-trained enough that even thousands can move as like one, turning to the so perfectly as to not leave one behind or out of place. As heavy cavalry, extremely hardy and well-trained, these horsemen can fight in wedge formation and have a powerful charge. Using the forest to their advantage, they strike terror into nearby infantry.

Cimbri noble cavalry is one of the primary causes for desertion in the enemy ranks. Averaging over six and a half feet tall, they wear helmets representing the heads of wild beasts and other unusual figures, crowned with a winged crest, to make them appear taller. They are covered with iron coats of mail, and carry white glittering shields. Each wields a battleaxe or a large, heavy sword. 

Preview: Ardiaei

Illyria, northwestern part of the Balkan Peninsula, inhabited from about the 10th century BCE onward by the Illyrians, an Indo-European people. At the height of their power, the Illyrian frontiers extended from the Danube River southward to the Adriatic Sea and from there eastward to the Šar Mountains.

The Illyrians, bearers of the Hallstatt culture, were divided into tribes, each a self-governing community with a council of elders and a chosen leader. A strong tribal chieftain, however, could unite several tribes into a kingdom. The last and best-known Illyrian kingdom had its capital at Scodra (modern Shkodër, Albania). One of its most important rulers was King Agron (second half of the 3rd century BCE), who, in alliance with Demetrius II of Macedonia, defeated the Aetolians (231). Agron, however, died suddenly, and during the minority of his son, his widow, Teuta, acted as regent. Queen Teuta attacked Sicily and the coastal Greek colonies with part of the Illyrian navy. Simultaneously, she antagonized Rome, which finally sent a large fleet to the eastern shores of the Adriatic. Although Teuta submitted in 228, the Illyrian kingdom of the interior was not destroyed, and a second naval expedition was sent against Illyria in 219. Philip V of Macedonia aided his Illyrian neighbours and thus started a protracted war that ended with the conquest of the whole Balkan Peninsula by the Romans. The last Illyrian king, Genthius, surrendered in 168 BCE.

The Roman province of Illyricum stretched from the Drilon River (the Drin, in modern Albania) in the south to Istria (modern Slovenia and Croatia) in the north and to the Savus (Sava) River in the east; its administrative centre was Salonae (near present-day Split) in Dalmatia. With the extension of the Roman Empire along the Danube River valley, Illyricum was divided between the provinces of Dalmatia and Pannonia.

Under the empire, Illyria enjoyed a high degree of prosperity. It was traversed by a Roman road, and Illyria’s ports served as important trade and transit links between Rome and eastern Europe. Copper, asphalt, and silver were mined in parts of the region, and Illyrian wine, oil, cheese, and fish were exported to Italy.

Since the semiautonomous clansmen of the Illyrian highlands were hardy warriors, it was inevitable that the emperors should recruit them to serve with the Roman legions and even the Praetorian Guard. When in the 3rd century BCE the empire began to be threatened by the barbarian peoples of eastern and central Europe, Illyricum became a principal military bulwark of Rome and its culture in the ancient world. Several of the most-outstanding emperors of the late Roman Empire were of Illyrian origin, including Claudius II Gothicus, Aurelian, Diocletian, and Constantine the Great, most of whom were chosen by their own troops on the battlefield and later acclaimed by the Senate.

In 395 CE the empire was finally divided, and Illyria east of the Drinus River (the Drina, in the central Balkans) became part of the Eastern Empire. Between the 3rd and the 5th century it was devastated by the Visigoths and the Huns, who, however, left no lasting mark on Illyria. But the Slavs, who started their incursions into the Balkan Peninsula in the 6th century, had by the end of the 7th century settled throughout the Balkans, including the territories of ancient Illyria.

Ardiaei as an illyrian tribe:
Following the defeat of Carthage in the First Punic War in 241 BC, the Roman Republic became a dominant naval power in the Mediterranean. Nevertheless, Rome’s control of the seas was not absolute. To the east of Italy, another power was on the rise. This was the Ardiaean kingdom, ruled by an Illyrian tribe that began to threaten Rome’s trade routes that ran across the Adriatic Sea. At the helm of this kingdom was the capable Queen Teuta.

Teuta was the wife of Agron, a king of the Ardiaean kingdom. It was under Agron’s leadership that the Ardiaei became a force to be reckoned with. According to the Roman writer, Appian of Alexandria, Agron had expanded his kingdom by capturing a part of Epirus, as well as Corcyra, Epidamnus and Pharus. In addition, Agron’s fleet was much feared in the Adriatic Sea.

In 231 BC, Agron suddenly died, after obtaining a victory over the Aetolians. According to the Greek historian, Polybius, “King Agron, when the flotilla returned and his officers gave him an account of the battle, was so overjoyed at the thought of having beaten the Aetolians, then the proudest of peoples, that he took to carousals and other convivial excesses, from which he fell into a pleurisy that ended fatally in a few days.” As Agron’s heir, Pinnes, was a mere infant when the king died, the Ardiaean kingdom became ruled by Teuta, who acted as queen regent.

Although Teuta continued her late husband’s expansionist policy, her actions have been portrayed in a negative light by Polybius. Though this may well have been a biased view based on his focus on Roman histiography. According to Polybius, Teuta had a “woman’s natural shortness of view”, and that she “could see nothing but the recent success and had no eyes of what was going on elsewhere”. Polybius also mentions that Teuta supported the Illyrian practice of piracy, and pillaged her neighbours indiscriminately, as her commanders were ordered to treat all as enemies.

It was these piratical raids that would eventually lead the Romans to wage war against Teuta. The Roman Senate had initially ignored the complaints made against the Illyrians by merchants sailing the Adraitic Sea. Yet, as the number of complaints increased, the Senate was forced to interfere. The Romans first employed diplomacy, and sent envoys to Teuta’s court. The ancient sources record that Teuta was not at all pleased with the Roman envoys, and was not reasonable in her dealings with them. Worst of all, the diplomatic immunity of these envoys was breached. Polybius records that one of the envoys was assassinated whilst preparing to leave for Rome, whilst Cassius Dio mentions that some envoys were imprisoned whilst others killed.

When news of this returned to Rome, the Romans were outraged, and declared war against Teuta. A fleet of 200 ships was prepared for the invasion, along with a land army. The first target of the Roman fleet was the island of Corcyra, held by Demetrius, who was also the governor of Pharus. In both accounts of Appian and Polybius, Demetrius is said to have betrayed the Illyirians by surrendering Corcyra and Pharus to the Romans. According to Cassius Dio, however, it was Teuta herself who sent Demetrius to hand over Corcyra to the Romans in exchange for a truce. Shortly after the truce, however, Teuta attacked Epidamnus and Apollonnia, causing the Romans to interfere again. Demetrius would later transfer his allegiance to the Romans, as a result of the queen’s capriciousness.

Realising that she was no match for the Romans, Teuta surrendered in 227 B.C. According to Polybius, Teuta “consented to pay any tribute they imposed, to relinquish all Illyria except a few places and what mostly concerned the Greeks, undertook not to sail beyond Lissus with more than two unarmed vessels.” Additionally, Appian mentions that Corcyra, Pharus, Issa, Epidamnus and the Illyrian Atintani became Roman subjects. The remainder of Agron’s kingdom was in the hands of Pinnes, whose new guardian was Demetrius. Although Teuta lived for another few decades, there is an interesting story stating that Teuta had jumped off a cliff instead of surrendering to Rome at Risan, on the Bay of Kotor, present day Montenegro. As Risan is the only town on the bay without a seafaring tradition, it is said that this was due to the curse inflicted by the Illyrian queen on the city before she committed suicide.


This faction rework adds 22 new units to Ardiaei which will replace the existing ones. Here are some pictures of the new units:

Spear Infantry

Illyrioi Pantodapoi
These levies were not well equipped but do their best with their versatile short spear. Sometimes too poor to afford an iron or even bronze tipped spearheads, some of them were equipped with carefully shaped flintstones. When Bardyllis conquered the Scordisci, he succeed to take control of several metallic mines, and enhanced the whole quality of his army… These levies were sometimes equipped with leather soft caps, or in stud, cheap and effective. Their shields were mostly made of wicker or pelt. Wood scutums were probably reserved to the warrior class.

Illyrioi Doryphoroi
The main part of any illyrian army was this kind of levied spear warbands. Raised in tribal aeras, they used various equipments, disc and stud helmets for the most and affordable pot helmets for the others. There main weapon was the spear, sometimes still tipped with a bronze spearhead, although iron was probably more common at that time. Their shield was of various quality, but a scutum, most of the time made with interlapped light wooden boards and leather. Although poorely equipped and almost not trained, they are slightly more experienced and skilled than levied peasants and can hold the line and attack with success if properly managed.

Illyrioi Pantodapoi Hoplitai
Only recruited in major “hellenized” cities (it was always the case for the elites, still under vivid greek influence). The first hoplites were probably introduced by Bardyllis, but it is not clear however if they actually fought like them on only were equipped like them, and still fighting in the classic illyrian behaviour, which made a large place to individual bravery, in the homeric style… Scholars are however more certain about the evolution of these hoplites later. The hoplites of Scodra probably fought while using a real greek phalanx tactic, mostly by imitation to the elite hoplites. Levied hoplites were given no armor, a disc-and-stud or leather cap, and a wide all-wood aspis.

Illyrioi Hoplitai
These standard hoplites could be recruited in southern illyrian major cities, particularly at scodra. Basically they were the so-called “imitation hoplites”, local warriors equipped with hoplite suits, lend by greek allies against macedon. Whatever they could have been effective on the battlefield (they crushed the macedonians, then classically equipped), they were no match against the Lakedemonians… They were given a leather armor, of the illyrian type which was cheaper than the true greek linothorax. They probably didn’t used greaves, or leather ones, as they were reserved to the elite. Well-trained and disciplined, they could slaughtering easily all tribal illyrian troops encountered, and hold fast against similar hoplites, but not against the macedonian phalanxes, as they were crushed by those of Alexander. Later, not suprisingy, they were not efficient also against the Roman legions.

Illyrioi Aristoi Hoplitai (only pre reform)
Only the heavily hellenized nobles of Scodra fought on foot, as their was a strong tradition of horsemanship, and fight dismounted was not a current practice. These “Epiketoi” were given the best equipments, those of archaic hoplites, with the classic bronze armor, greaves, aspis, illyrian helmet (crafted recently, and brightly decorated, not the usual antiquities usually wore by other warriors), xyphos or kopis. Beeing disciplined, they could fight as every elite hoplite unit with perhaps more bravery and temptations of breaking the line to engage more glorious sword duels…

Illyrioi Keles Hoplitai
This kind of hoplite was probably in wide use because of they were equipped with an approximative hoplite wargear, but still retained their illyrian tactics, relying on individual bravery first, and raiding, ambushing warfare. It was however mostly a battle-line infantry, possibly young and weatlhy warriors, were equipped as such. They probably acted as flanking infantry, more mobile in order to counter the enemy’s numerous peltasts like their greek counterparts, but also regularly fought in melee, beeing in huge numbers; The illyrian helmet was either pot or of so-called “illyrian type”. Both were old-fashion and obsolete. It is probably that some of them were given from father to son, and so on, stored and maintained with care.

Illyrioi Epilektoi
These well-trained, well protected and well-experienced scutum bearers were in fact spear and sword armed infantry, fightning at the forefront, with sheer discipline and skills. They were efficient but equipped with a somewhat obsolete equipment, typically illyrian, including their famous curved sword as secondary weapon, and a deadly xyston. They know how to make quickly a celtic-style shieldwall, or even a kind of “turtle”, and slowly advancing against an heavy fire. The celtic and illyrian phalanx made about scutums were even tighter than their greek counterparts… Caesar described them well, and dealt with them by ordering his first line cohorts to hurl their pila on the advancing formation. The pila killed a few, but their shape successfully hampered the entire line by making the shields useless and cumbersome, with these pila deeply encroached. Then, most of these celts throwed away their shield and then were made piecemeal when charging against a second volley of pila from the after ranks.

Illyrioi Eugeneis (reform unit)
This kind of foot noble elite infantry was fighting as hoplites but with a scutum instead the aspis. It was a perfect mix between celtic and greek influences. They used shieldwall tactics with high skills, more in the celtic than greek fashion. If their line was broken, they fought also individually with bravery. As in the celtic battlelines, they fought at the first rank, position of honor. Some of them prefer to used the more prestigious Kopis instead of the classic curved sword. Although bronze and iron armours were obsolete both within the greek and celtic warriors, the illyrians still used and produced them.

Illyrioi Thureophoroi (reform unit)
These late units are partly conjectural. They would have been probably recruited if the roman occured later, and the southern illyrian influence benefiting from returning alexandrian campaign mercenary veterans. This reformated infantry would have been modelled directly after the successors thureophoroi, which probably first seen action by the fall of 300 bc. They were basically improved heavy peltasts, but using a spear as main weapon. The first of them were equipped with greaves but no armour, but the eastern hellenistic late thureophoroi (like the one of Sidon) has more in common with unarmoured roman legionaries than the classic thureophoroi. They could have been related also from players practicing the “thureomachia”, a war-like sport featuring a sword and a thureos. Classic thureophoroi were probably short-lived. According to plutarch, these were peltast, fightning like a light infantry, but then turn quickly to use their spears in phalanx when the enemy was close. They would have been also a variant of the greek mercenary peltastai, and probably the result of iphikratean reforms as well. Illyrians were massively recruited as peltasts, it is near sure that they would serve also as thureophoroi, with hoplite spears, well-protected. These illyrian reformed infantrymen would have worn the usual leather quilted typical illyrian cuirass, and greek more “modern” helmets, like the affordable and widely used chalcidian or attic models.

Melee Infantry

Illyrioi Ropalophoroi
This was the most common infantry within the true warriors. They were poorely equipped, compared to their greek counterparts, but hardened and highly skilled, making them valuable mercenaries for the greek and hellenistic armies. They acted as raiders, beeing equipped with a wood halstatt-style scutum, a mace, stud helmets and a bunch of javelins, not tipped, and a fast-produced wicker and pelt but large and light shield. They mastered ambush and raiding tactics than none in the mediterranean, due to their long intestine wars and mountaneous landscape.

Illyrioi Xypherai
These swordsmen were skilled warriors, fighting with a finely made xyphos, generally similar to the greek models, and also sometimes slightly curved Sica swords. They used bronze helmets, generally of the pot crested type or the “illyrian” model, wood scutum and some iron-tipped javelins. This made them quite efficient as the main assault infantry of any illyrian army. By their equipment they were mostly recruited outside cities. The Bardyllian Scodra warriors were all equipped in a more greek fashion, with aspis and kopis swords instead.

Illyrioi Pelekophoroi
These warriors use a typical illyrian-venetic halstatt axe which was derived from utilitarian “civilian” models with bronze and even flintstone heads. Illyria is a land of mountains and forests, the axe was a very common tool. It is not suprising that the illyrian armies counted lots of axemen, like in nearby Venetic, Boians, Taurisci peoples. This axe is well decribed on some descriptions and reliefs, with a narrow attach, curved handling, and light and long blade. it was more a chopping tool than an heavy axe. But it was light enough to be thrown, these warriors using also javelins as a complement. Their only armor was probably a leather model, which was made of interlapping straps and reinforced by linen and bronze pieces, or a simple leather cuirass reinforced with iron heads.

Dardanioi Epilektoi (reform unit)
Fundamentally, these were elite infantrymen typical of the illyrian kind, but equipped with thracian/macedonian equipments and helmets, like the heavy and modern thracian helmet, hasltatt-style bronze armors, and large and high quality kopis swords. Others used more celticized equipments as long swords and more rarely some chainmails for those who could afford them (like the dardanian nobles). These excellent infantry were lately recruited, in a purely “would if” scenario, as the Dardanians were long time hostile to the southern illyrians, atlhough part of the short-lived “bardylian empire”; They were fierce opponents for both the thracians and the macedonians, and sometimes see as thracians by the illyrians, and the contrary for the first…

Missile Infantry

Illyrioi Akontistai
The main light infantry, common to all tribes included in the Bardyllian kingdom, centered around Scodra. They were given wood javelins, not tipped, and a dagger. Not suited for close combat, they were mostly engaged on forefront skirmishes and traditional ambushes. The Delmatae were the most famous of all, using fur caps and pelt shields. These fierce nomadic people were skilled raiders, accostumed to this kind of warfare.

Illyrioi Toxotai
These commoners were hunters, recruited as auxiliaries, in the typical “psiloi” tradition instaured by Bardyllis. They were not the majority, however, because of the price of arrows. The Illyrians more probably relied upon slingers instead.

Illyrioi Sphendonetai
The slingers were an universal style of warrior, throughout the mediterranean. For some reasons, islanders were generally the best of them. The most reputed slingers were recruited on the Pharos Island, and the Lapodes (north-west) in general were renown. Local reputed mercenary slingers were the Corcyreans. The Liburnian pirates were also skilled slingers.

Illyrioi Peltastai
Really the backbone of any illyrian army, these proven warriors were equipped the curved typical illyrian Sica and an heavy load of javelins. Well protected by their wicker thureos backed with leather, and a leather helmet, they acted as first-class skirmishers or heavy peltasts, capable of close fight as well, with high skills. They were not the majority however, beeing slightly expensive to recruit. Later, they probably became a kind of thureophoroi or elite peltasts, equipped with helmets and operating as a fast wing flanking infantry, replacing the outdated keles hoplitai.


Delmatae Hippakontistai
The Delmatae were the most renown of them. Beeing pastoralists, they used fast horses for scouting an raiding nearby villages. These skilled cavalrymen, if not well-equipped, were efficient scouts and skirmisher cavalry, acting as auxiliaries of the Illyrian army. Light Delmatae infantrymen and cavalrymen wore fur caps, as it was stated by greek authors.

Illyrioi Aspidophoroi
This kind of semi-light cavalry was the most common one. They were given no armor, a leather helmet or metal pot one, and various spears for close combat, for launching and thrusting. They were given also an axe to finish the job. Their main protection was an aspis similar to those of the infantry, although somewhat lighty built. They are well decribed by some engravings.

Illyrioi Hippeis
These lancers were equipped with metal illyrian helmets, leather cuirass, and probably diven from the small local nobility. With their swift and nervous poneys, these well trained cavalrymen were given flanking protection and turning attacks. They can be ordered to threaten the enemy’s back as fightning another cavalry unit, which they do at best, with a medium thrusting spear and their straight or illyrian sword.

Illyrioi Epilektoi Hippeis (only pre reform)
These early bodyguards are a bunch of aristocratic horsemen, heavily trained for mounted combat. They used almost exclusively bronze or iron cuirasses, in the halstatt style, aspis shield backed with wood and covered with embossed bronze. There were not heavy lancers but a fast melee cavary, able to throw javelins and throw a devastating charge with their spears, and finish off infantry with their greek sword, probably machaira, which was highly valued by hellenized southern Illyrians.

Illyrioi Basilikon Hippeis (reform unit)
Late illyrian bodyguards. Although still aristocrats, they would have began to use more refined equipments, and anamorphic cuirass in the thessalian style or chainmails, with the growing celtic influence. They were equipped with spears and spatha longswords, more useful against infantry, and probably adopted from the late celtic heavy cavalrymen. like their fellow celtic noblemen, they mounted huge battlehorses driven from the eastern mediterranean at high price. This mount was necessary to cope with their heavy equipment, roughly the same as an heavy hoplite, and to “push” after the charge, through the enemy lines, striking with their longsword.


assurbanippal for creating the new shields (textures by Ritter-Floh

– Preview, units, research and overhaul done by Ritter-Floh!

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Preview: Medewi 2.0



Around 1050 BC, Egypt’s dominion over Nubia came to an end. It was not until approximately 900 BC that a new power subjugated this territory and for no less than 1000 years determined its history. This power, called the Kingdom of Napata and Meroe is also known as the Kingdom of Kush. The Kingdom of Kush is divided into 2 periods, the Napatan Period lasting until 270 BC and the Meroitic Period existing from the fall of that kingdom toward the year 320 AD. 

Today we can say, with some certainty that the ruling class in the Kingdom of Kush was not made up of Egyptian or Libyian immigrants, as we had frequently assumed in the past. Names of the royal family as well as high ranking officials and priests, prove that they belonged to the people whose language became the written language of the Meroitic Period. We call them “Meroites”. In addition, the custom of matrilinear succession and the development of royal tomb installations reveal that the social and cultural traditions of the ruling class were derived not from the Egyptians but from the peoples of the Upper Nile Valley. 

With regards to agriculture, during the Meroitic Period, cattle breeding becomes increasingly important, replacing sheep and goats due to their nutritional value. The many representations of cattle, for example those in the Temple of Apedemak at Musawwarat es-Sufra, picture a powerful and well-cared-for breed leading us to assume that cattle breeding was taking place. An extensive system of reservoirs was developed to facilitate cattle herding and the cultivation of fields away from the Nile. The vicinity of Meroe was suited to iron production on a large scale. Implements made of iron may have been employed in agriculture and iron tools were used in the quarries and in construction. 

The minor arts, especially that of goldsmiths, continued to develop and reached high levels of achievement. The elephant had great significance in Meroe, particularly in Musawwarat es-Sufra where it was frequently represented in relief and sculpture. A significant change took place at the beginning of the Meroitic Period: typical Napatan (bright red) ceramics disappeared entirely. A new black polished ware is found in royal burials beginning around 300 BC. 

International trade did not pass through Meroe, which lay to the side of 2 main trade routes connecting Egypt with the Far East [the overland route through Arabia and the overseas passage across the Red Sea]. Direct trade with Meroe was important for Egypt and so was the trade with central Africa states that passed through Meroe en route to Egypt. To Egypt, Meroe exported gold, ivory, iron, ostrich feathers and other products of the African interior; it also provided Egypt with slaves. 

The major period for construction of the Musawwarat es-Sufra began after 300 BC with the erection of temples on artificial terraces within the Great Enclosure. This site is located in a natural basin five or six miles in width surrounded by hills in the Sudan. Musawwarat es-Sufra was an important center for pilgrims who came to celebrate the periodic festivals held there for the local gods. The numerous elephant representations may possibly suggest that elephants were trained here (for military and ceremonial purposes) and the large enclosures may have been designed to herd them in. There are several one-room temples dedicated to the native gods. 

The Meroitic script has a cursive and more rarely used hieroglyphic form. Despite the individual characters being derived from Egyptian demotic script and hieroglyphs, the Meroitic system of writing differs fundamentally from that of the Egyptian. The complicated Egyptian system was reduced to a simple alphabet of 23 symbols. In contrast to Egyptian script and most Semitic systems of writing, Meroitic script includes vowel notations. From the 2nd century BC on, the Meroitic language was almost employed exclusively as the written language as well. Since there are no bilingual inscriptions to provide us with access to Meriotic, we understand very little of the language. 

The history of the Meriotic Kingdom of Kush can be divided into the following stages:

  1. Transitional Stage 310-270 BC
    It was assumed that the Kingdom of Kush was at this time divided into a northern (Napatan) territory with its capital at Napata and a southern (Meriotic) territory with its capital at Meroe. There is a greater emphasis on Amun of Napata as a traditional god. In their cartouches, all the rulers of this period add to their own names the epithet “beloved of Amun.”
  2. Early Meroitic Period 270-90 BC
    The influence of the priests of Amun came to an end with the transfer of the royal cemetery to Meroe. Arkakemani is the first king to have his pyramid erected near Meroe. The first 3 rulers of the Meroitic Period assumed throne names modeled upon rulers of the Egyptian Dynasty XXVI. During the reign of King Tanyidamani (110-90 BC), the oldest datable text of significant length written in the Meroitic language is found on a stela containing a detailed government report and temple endowments. Henceforth, Meroitic hieroglyphs were increasingly used and soon replaced Egyptian writing altogether.
  3. Middle Meroitic Period 90 BC~0 AD
    The 1st century BC can in many ways be regarded as a golden age; the height of Meroitic power. The strong concentration of reigning queens in this period is striking. A small group of pyramids at Gebel Barkal can be dated to the 1st century BC. Increasing Meroitic activity in Lower Nubia is evident and this eventually lead to a military confrontation with the Romans. According to reports by the Greek geographer Strabo, Roman troops had advanced as far south as Napata. However, a peace agreement with Roman (Ptolemaic Egypt) was met and lasted until the end of the 3rd century AD. Only the Emperor Nero in 64 AD planned a campaign to Meroe, but it was never executed.
  4. Late Meroitic Period 0 AD~320 AD
    This period began with King Natakami (0-20 AD). He managed to introduce a new smaller size pyramid and a new kind of chapel decoration. Natakami also carried out renovations for old temples and built new ones. Given the sparsity of surviving monuments, we are forced to conclude that the summit of power achieved by King Natakami could not be maintained in the years following his reign. There are very few observable decisive changes within this period and it is generally regarded as marking the decline and fall of the Meroitic Kingdom. Yet, there is no evidence of impoverishment and the economy worked fine.

Causes for the decline of the Meroitic Kingdom are still largely unknown. Among the various factors put forth are: soil erosion due to overgrazing; excessive consumption of wood for iron production; abandonment of trade routes along the Nile. There were also constant battles with nomads on both sides of the Nile Valley. The Kingdom of Meroe ended in the first half of the 4th century AD.

This faction revision adds 3 new units to Meroe and changes the appearance of many existing ones. Here are some pictures of the new and reworked units:

Spear Infantry:  

Yam Suph Gora
(Red Sea Hoplites) These hoplites are mostly Hellenic colonists who were drawn to the Erythraian Sea coast. Their aspis has no bronze coating, relying on elephant skin instead.

Dill’e Gora
(Ethiopian Spearmen) These men are equipped with spears, shields, and helmets the quality of which might change depending who is levying these troops.

Safe Kugur
(Meroe Royal Guard) These elite troops are equipped like hoplites, with a dory spear and a xiphos, kopis or machaira sword. They are useful for many tasks, but are generally foot guards both in camp and in battle, protecting the advance of the king in battle.

(Meroe Spearmen) Armed with javelins, spear and shield, these troops can skirmish and face enemy infantry in melee. They already know that they are superb hunters and warriors, and do not need to prove their skills to anyone by attacking impetuously!

(Meroe Pikemen) Based on a Graffiti at Musawwarat es Sufra, these spearmen carry a long spear, swords or maces as melee weapons. As defence they used light armour or just tunics and a smaller shield. They are able to form a phalanx against cavalry and are capable of holding a line against stronger infantry as well.

Melee Infantry:  

(Ethiopian Axemen) These fierce soldiers fight with the heaviest of the infantry. They wield large double-bladed axes and fight as powerful shock infantry. They wear a mail vest and leather greaves in addition to a long tunic. Fighting without helmets or shields, these men crash into an enemy line ferociously, using their large stature and raw power to push through enemies with reckless abandon.

Bilit’ti Sayif
(Ethiopian Swordmen) These swordsmen are equipped only with helmets and shields, as body armor would just burden a soldier in the hot climate. They are elite troops, and can be expected to fulfil their role as assault infantry as long as they are properly used.

Dill’e Sayif
(Ethiopian Medium Infantry) Recruited from the lesser nobility of Ethiopian people and equipped with a shield, these troops are very dangerous if used properly. They are the heavy infantry of Meroe generals, and with their axes they can break through an enemy line.

(Shielded Axemen) Raised from among the higher social groups of the Ethiopians, these noblemen are armed with a double headed axe and a shield. Highly skilled, these men can easily break through an enemy line of lower quality infantry. They can inflict substantial damage, even to well-protected enemies.

Kulus Bomani
(Kushite Painted Warriors) The tribal warriors from the Kushite kingdom are described by Herodotus as half-painted in vermillion and white. They are fierce and versatile, used mostly as heavy skirmishers, fighting with clubs, axes and short spears.

Toog Kugur
(Meroe Macemen) This melee infantry can stike really hard whith their maces, though they are not heavily protected. As weapons they carried javelins and a mace of metal or stone, based on sources from the royal tombs of El Hobagi. A light hide shield is the only defense.

Nass-i Sne (reform unit)
(Meroe Medium Swordsmen) These late Meroe warriors wear the rather strange looking Shotel sword. Recruited from the lesser nobility of Meroe people and equipped with a little shield, these troops are very dangerous if used properly. They are the heavy infantry of Medewi Generals and with their large, curved swords they can break through an enemy line.

Missile Infantry 

Nass’i Wir
(Meroe Archers) These men are equipped with the longbow, similar to some seen in ancient Egypt, as well as a quiver and knife. Their costume also seems to follow ancient Egyptian tradition. Their bows have a short range, but each warrior carries a good selection of hunting and war arrows, designed to cause massive bleeding and pierce armour respectively.

(Ethiopian Skirmishers) Nubian tribesmen are born warriors; fighting is almost a lifestyle for them. They use mostly short spears, both for thrusting and throwing. They are also accustomed to the harsh conditions of the desert, and are skilled adversaries.

Sipesiye Nass’i Wir
(Ethiopian Noble Archers) Richly attired with expensive pelts and armbands, these nobles have perfected the art of the hunt. Their skill at archery has grown into a specialized art form.


Haug Mre’ke
(Ethiopian Light Cavalry) These javelin-armed mounted skirmishers can strike quickly and be gone in the time it takes a more ponderous enemy to react. They do not wear armour, but carry shields and swords so that they can fight in hand-to-hand combat should the need arise.

Dill’e Mre’ke
(Ethiopian Lancers) These cavalrymen are often recruited from the higher classes of Ethiopian society, the families of the nobles and priests. They are equipped with lances and swords, in addition to helmets and shields. In battle they can be expected to fight bravely.

Safe Mre’ke
(Meroe Royal Cavalry) These spear-armed cavalry are an elite reserve for use in a moment of crisis. They are equipped with spears, swords, scale armour and shields, so that they can dash to any point on the battlefield and fight.

Sipesiye Mre’ke (reform unit)
(Ethiopian Quilted Cataphracts) Uniquely armored with heavy padding from head to hoof, these fully equipped nobles use maces, swords and spears to inflict heavy damage upon the enemy


(African Elephants) Elephants are a terrifying spectacle to opposing troops, able to smash battle lines and toss men aside like dogs do with rats. They are a living battering ram aimed at the enemy battle line. When pursuing enemies, they can be even more deadly.


(Meroe Chariots) Light chariots are very fast, very noisy and, when used in large numbers, quite intimidating. They combine the swiftness of cavalry with the ‘staying power’ of infantry. They can also be very effective in pursuing fleeing foes.

Credits: Preview and roster by Ritter-Floh

assurbanippal for creating the new maces and the pikemen shield (textures by Ritter-Floh)
Dontfearme22 and the AoB Team for a lot of models/textures. Please check the Age of Bronze mod, it’s an amazing project and the units are very well done!
The Meroitic Language and Writing System by Claude Rilly and Alex de Voogt for some new unit names (all unit names were held in proto-nubian)
The Wise Coffin for creating the native language unit names
LinusLinothorax for his research and help
-The AE team for inspiration and ideas